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Chronological Reference

I. Summary of Archaeological Periods

This data taken from Encyclopedia Judaica. Different sources can give varying chronology!

8000 -- 4000 BCE Neolithic Period
4000 -- 3150 BCEChalcolithic Period
3150 -- 2900 BCEEarly Bronze Age I
2900 -- 2600 BCEEarly Bronze Age II
2600 -- 2300 BCEEarly Bronze Age III
2200 -- 1950 BCE Middle Bronze Age I
1950 -- 1550 BCE Middle Bronze Age II
1550 -- 1400 BCE Late Bronze Age I
1400 -- 1200 BCE Late Bronze Age II
1200 -- 1000 BCE Iron Age I
1000 -- 586 BCE Iron Age II

II. Timeline of Israeli History in Short

Source: The Highlights of Israeli History from the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs

This is an abbreviated version of the source, since most events from the modern history are not relevant to the current site. Links to other detailed MFA History pages are given in the table, marked "More at MFA ..."

17th-6th C. BCE             BIBLICAL TIMES
c. 17th century BCE The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God - settle in the Land of Israel. Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt.
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c. 13th century BCE Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert. Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.
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13th-12th centuries BCE Israelites settle the Land of Israel
c. 1020 BCE Jewish Monarchy established; Saul, first king.
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c. 1000 BCE Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom.
c. 960 BCE First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon.
c. 930 BCE Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel
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722-720 BCE Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).
586 BCE Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia.
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538-515 BCE Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt.
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332 BCE Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule.
166-160 BCE Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple
142-129 BCE Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
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129-63 BCE Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.
63 BCE Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey.
63 BCE-313 CE             ROMAN RULE         More at MFA ...
37 BCE - 4 CE Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel; Temple in Jerusalem refurbished
c 20-33 Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth
66 Jewish revolt against the Romans
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
132-135 Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.
c. 210 Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishnah) completed.
313-636             BYZANTINE RULE         More at MFA ...
313 The Roman emperor Constantin adopts Christianity and founds the Bysantine Empire; by the end of the century the Land of Israel becomes a predominantly Christian country.
c. 390 Commentary on the Mishnah (Jerusalem Talmud) completed.
614 Persian invasion
636-1099             ARAB RULE         More at MFA ...
636 The Land of Israel conquered by Arabs
691 On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik
1099-1291             CRUSADER DOMINATION         More at MFA ...
1099 The army of the First Crusade capture Jerusalem, non-Christian population massacred; the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem established
1291-1516             MAMLUK RULE         More at MFA ...
1291 Mamluks - Muslem warriors from Egypt - drive Crusaders out of the Land of Israel.
1517-1917             OTTOMAN RULE         More at MFA ...
1517 The Turkish Ottoman Empire conquests the Land of Israel
1564 Code of Jewish law (Shulhan Arukh) published.
1860 First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls.
1882-1903 First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia; four more waves of immigration will follow till 1948
1897 First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.
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1909 First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.
1917 400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest; British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine".
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1918-48             BRITISH RULE         More at MFA ...
1920 Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded. Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv)to conduct its affairs.
1921 First moshav, Nahalal, founded.
1922 Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations;
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Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.
1924 Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
1925 Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mt. Scopus.
1929 Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants.
1936-39 Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.
1939 Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.
1939-45 World War II; Holocaust in Europe.
1947 UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land.
1948 -             STATE OF ISRAEL
1948 End of British Mandate (May 14) State of Israel proclaimed (May 14).
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Israel invaded by five Arab states (May 15) War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949) Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established
1949 Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon. Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule. First Knesset (parliament) elected.
1948-52 Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.
1956 Sinai Campaign
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1962 Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.
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1967 Six-Day War, Jerusalem reunited.
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1968-70 Egypt's War of Attrition against Israel
1973 Yom Kippur War
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1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.
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1981 Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor just before it is to become operative.
1982 Israel's three-stage withdrawal from Sinai completed. Operation Peace for Galilee removes PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) terrorists from Lebanon.
1987 Widespread violence (intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.
1991 Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war. Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid
1993 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people.
1994 Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
1995 Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip; Palestinian Council elected. Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.
1996 Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates. Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hizbullah terrorists' attacks on northern Israel.
1998 Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary. Wye Agreement with PLO